Mulberry vinegar attenuates lipopolysaccharide and interferon gamma-induced inflammatory responses in C6 glial cells
- Bang, Se In; Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, Weon Tack; Lee, Ah Young; Cho, Eun Ju
- Issue Date
- glial activation; lipopolysaccharide; mulberry vinegar; neurodegenerative disease; neuroinflammation
- JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY, v.46, no.8
- Journal Title
- JOURNAL OF FOOD BIOCHEMISTRY
- The present study evaluated the effect of mulberry vinegar (MV) on the regulation of the inflammatory responses using C6 glial cells. Treatment with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) induced the nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species generation, while pre-incubation with MV inhibited these formations in a concentration-dependent manner. MV treatment also decreased the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in C6 glial cells stimulated by LPS/IFN-gamma. Compared to the LPS/IFN-gamma-treated control group, the MV-treated group exerts downregulation in the protein expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, through inhibition of nuclear factor-kappa B activation. Protein expressions of glial fibrillary acidic protein and ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule 1 were also decreased in the MV-treated group. These findings suggest that MV prevents neuroinflammation by regulating the NF-kappa B signaling pathway and glial activation. Practical application Mulberry fruits (Morus alba L.) have been commonly consumed as juice or jam. It is a rich source of anthocyanins that might be associated with beneficial effects on human health, including the anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-obesity, and anti-diabetic effects. Mulberry vinegar was produced by alcohol and acetic fermentation of mulberry juice, and they possessed a protective effect against LPS/IFN-gamma-stimulated inflammatory responses in glial cells via regulation of glial activation and NF-kappa B signaling pathway (i.e., downregulation of iNOS, COX-2, TLR4, p-I kappa B, and NF-kappa B p65 protein expressions). Although further research especially animal and clinical trials are still necessary, the present study will be helpful to scale-up the production of functional vinegar with neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties using mulberry.
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- 농업생명과학대학 > 식품공학부 > Journal Articles
- 자연과학대학 > 식품영양학과 > Journal Articles
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