Improving effect of porphyra tenera extract on ultra-fine dust-mediated inflammation [초미세먼지 유도성 염증반응에 대한 김(Porphyra tenera) 추출물의 개선 효과 ? 연구노트 ?]
- Park, S.K.; Kang, J.Y.; Kim, J.M.; Han, H.J.; Shin, E.J.; Heo, H.J.
- Issue Date
- Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
- Anti-inflammation; Cell protection; PM2.5; Porphyra tenera; Ultra-fine dust
- Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, v.49, no.3, pp.295 - 303
- Journal Title
- Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
- Start Page
- End Page
- Ultra-fine dust smaller than 2.5 ?m in diameter (PM2.5) is the causative agent of numerous health hazards and systemic dysfunctions. Absorbed PM2.5 is not easily removed from the body and triggers immediate adverse effects such as oxidative stress and inflammatory-mediated reactions. To evaluate the improving effect of Porphyra tenera on PM2.5-induced toxicity, we investigated the cell protective effects in vitro, and anti-inflammatory effects in a mouse model. P. tenera was extracted using water and 80% ethanol. The water extract showed relatively higher total polysaccharide content than the ethanolic extract, whereas the ethanolic extract had relatively high total phenolic and flavonoid contents. Cell protective effect was evaluated by measuring the intracellular reactive oxygen species contents and cell viability in PM2.5-induced cytotoxicity in nasal epithelial (RPMI-2650), lung epithelial (A549), and brain neuroblastoma (MC-IXC) cells. The results indicate that water extract exerts more effective cell protection. The anti-inflammatory effect of the water extract was subsequently evaluated by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and inflammation-mediated protein expression levels in lung and brain tissue of the PM2.5-exposed mouse model. Significant inhibition of MDA production was observed as an oxidative stress marker. The water extract also effectively regulated inflammation-mediated protein expressions in the lung tissue, including toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, TLR-4, phospho-JNK (p-JNK), and pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-6). Furthermore, exposure to the water extract also regulated the expressions of TLR-2, TLR-4, and IL-1β in the brain tissue. Taken together, these results indicate the potential of P. tenera extracts as immunomodulators of PM2.5-mediated inflammation. ? 2020 Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.
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