고려시대 불교 관련 金石文 撰述의 양상과 고려사회의 성격The Aspect of writing Inscriptions on Buddhism in Goryeo Period and the Characteristics of Goryeo Society
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- The Aspect of writing Inscriptions on Buddhism in Goryeo Period and the Characteristics of Goryeo Society
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- 불교 금석문; 高僧碑; 寺刹碑; 文翰官; 碑文 撰述; 普光寺碑; 圓明國師; a memorial stone for a Buddhist monk(高僧碑); a memorial stone for a Buddhist temple(寺刹碑); the officials in charge of writing king’s orders(文翰官); writing inscriptions; Monument of Bogwang temple(普光寺碑)
- 한국중세사연구, no.60, pp.157 - 191
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- Memorial stones were made through Goryeo king’s orders especially for the monks with the titles, ‘king’s teacher(王師)’ or ‘teacher of the country(國師)’ and the inscriptions were usually written by officials in charge of writing king’s orders(文翰官). This reflected the need of the disciples to clarify that the inscription containing the actual interests of Buddhist temples was the king’s will, and also was in line with the system of the king’s teacher(王師) and teacher of the country(國師) operated under the country’s need to control Buddhist churches.
The officials in charge of writing king’s orders(文翰官)’ writing inscriptions for the monks has a political and public character. However there was no role of the state in the process of their securing the Buddhist-related knowledge they need to write the inscription. In other words, they were playing a public role based on knowledge gained in private areas. This shows the situation in which Buddhism was established as a universal culture and religion in the Goryeo Dynasty, while also showing the mixed aspect of the official and private sectors in the management of the bureaucracy of the Goryeo Dynasty.
This pattern continued in the latter phase of Goryeo Dynasty, but changes occurred at the same time. The authority of the Mongolian emperor was also highlighted in Buddhist-related inscriptions, and Mongolian officials often wrote the inscription or wrote the letters of the inscription in Goryeo. The ‘Monument of Bogwang temple(普光寺碑)’ is a good example of this change and the aspect of Buddhist monks’ disciples’ attempts to secure political authority through the royal order while erecting monuments for their teacher.
Since Chung-gam(冲鑑), the key figure of the monument was a ‘teacher of the country(國師)’, the monument could be erected through the royal order if it had not been for his will. When his will led his disciples to build a memorial stone for a temple, not for a monk, they sought to replace the authority they could gain through the royal order by asking Mongolian officials to write the inscription and the letters of the inscription.
Meanwhile, the fact that the monument was erected not long after the ‘Anti-Yuan reform’ shows how individuals who were not in the political arena viewed the Goryeo-Mongol relationship at a time when they were understood to have been very estranged from the political and historical point of view.
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