Comparative study between parts of fennel (foeniculum vulgare mill.) for taste and flavor propertiesopen access
- Hong, S.J.; Boo, C.G.; Heo, S.U.; Shin, E.-C.
- Issue Date
- Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
- Electronic nose; Electronic tongue; Fennel; GC-MS; Sensory properties
- Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition, v.50, no.4, pp.384 - 394
- Journal Title
- Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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- End Page
- Our research investigated sensory and chromatographical characteristics using an electronic tongue (E-tongue), electronic nose (E-nose), and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The characteristics of taste and flavor in parts of the fennel were measured by a non-destructive method and pattern analysis. The results of the E-tongue showed that the fennel seed had the highest sensor value of umami taste (UMS) and sourness taste (SRS) at 8.7 and 8.4, respectively. On the other hand, the sensor value of saltiness (STS) in the seed was detected at 4.5, which was lower compared to portions of the stem and bulb at 6.0 and 7.5, respectively. The E-tongue and E-nose principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the principal component 1 (PC1) represented 82.36% variance and PC2 represented 17.64% variance. The fennel bulb has been located on the first quadrant, with the highest sensor values of STS and the highest content of d-valerolactone, trans-anethole, 2-octanone, and 3-mercapto-2-pentanone. The fennel seed has been located on the second quadrant, with the highest sensor values of UMS and SRS, as well as 3-methyl nonane content. The fennel stem has been located on the fourth quadrant, which has the highest content of α-pinene. In the GC-MS analysis, a total of 129 volatile compounds were identified, which include 7 acids and esters, 20 alcohols, 16 aldehydes, 70 hydrocarbons, 6 heterocyclics, and 10 ketones in the sample sets. An analysis of odor active compounds showed p-anisic aldehyde elicits floral and fennel odors at 3 and 2 odor intensity in the stem and seed, respectively. α-Pinene, 5-methyl-3-(1-methylethylidene)-1,4-hexadiene, and trans-anethole elicit fennel odors. Specifically, trans-anethole was detected in all samples. ? 2021 Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. All rights reserved.
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