동맹의 代價에서 충성의 代價로 ― 淸代 外藩蒙古 封爵制度의 특징과 운영 양상 ―From Reward of Alliance To Reward of Allegiance — The Investiture System for Waifan Menggu during the Qing Period, Its Characteristics and Mode of Operation —
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- From Reward of Alliance To Reward of Allegiance — The Investiture System for Waifan Menggu during the Qing Period, Its Characteristics and Mode of Operation —
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- Outer-Feudatory Mongols; investiture system; Manchu-Mongol political culture; the privilege of shixi wangti (perpetual heritability); inheritance of titles and ranks; The Imperially Commissioned Record of the Mongol and Muslim Nobility; 外藩蒙古; 封爵制度; 满蒙政治文化; 世襲罔替; 承襲; 《欽定外藩蒙古回部王公表傳》; 外藩蒙古; 작위제도; 만주-몽고 정치문화; 世襲罔替; 승습; 『欽定外藩蒙古回部王公表傳』
- 동양사학연구, no.156, pp.103 - 145
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- The investiture system during Qing period underwent changes in its function and meaning as the Manchu-Mongol relationship shifted from what used to be more of an alliance between the relatively equal parties before 1644, or, more specifically, ruguan qian (入關前), to that of the imperial center and the outer feudatories (waifan) of the Qing Empire over a long period of time. To put it simply, it could be summarized as a gradual process of shifting from the reward of alliance to that of allegiance.
This paper aims to examine the characteristics and operational principles of the investiture system that were applied to the Waifan Menggu (Outer-Feudatory Mongols) during the Qing period from two perspectives. First is that the investiture system for Waifan Menggu displayed a mixture of political cultures unique to Manchu-Mongol within the framework of Chinese tradition. Second is that the investiture system for Waifan Menggu during the Qing period did not just function as a ritualistic and symbolic device, but worked as a subtle and effective means to incorporate Mongol tribes into members of Qing empire.
Qing emperors intervened not only in the conferring of titles, but also in the process of inheriting titles that they exerted their influence on the authorities Mongol princes and their families enjoyed. Titles, ranks, and the entailing privileges were the greatest honor and reward that were bestowed upon those who gave their allegiance to and made distinguished contribution for Qing dynasty; however, the privilege of shixi wangti (perpetual heritability), which allowed them to pass down the titles and ranks that were first bestowed on them by the issuance of imperial orders did not last forever.
The investiture system for Waifan Menggu during Qing period was a system that surpassed granting reward on a purely ritualistic dimension and served as a means to demand and verify practical roles from the Mongol royals and nobles. Here, not only the degree of contributions that were made to the development of newly-established Manchu regime and the kinship with the imperial family or relations formed by marriage were taken into consideration. In addition, highly political calculations were involved to constantly test the meritorious services in war and allegiance of the Mongol nobilities, and keep their powers in check at any time. These principles and functions have evolved along with the long-term process of forming and expanding Waifan Menggu and completing the investiture system for Waifan Menggu as an institution during Qing period.
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