Usual intake of dietary isoflavone and its major food sources in Koreans: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2016-2018 dataopen access
- Kim, Yoona; Kim, Dong Woo; Kim, Kijoon; Choe, Jeong-Sook; Lee, Hae-Jeung
- Issue Date
- KOREAN NUTRITION SOC
- Isoflavone soy; intake; dietary source; Korean
- NUTRITION RESEARCH AND PRACTICE, v.16, pp.S134 - S146
- Journal Title
- NUTRITION RESEARCH AND PRACTICE
- Start Page
- End Page
- BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Accumulating evidence has shown the beneficial effects of isoflavone on health. There is limited information on the usual isoflavone intake for Koreans. This study examined the usual intake of total isoflavone and its major food sources in Koreans according to age and gender. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The dietary intake data of 21,271 participants aged 1 yrs and older from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) VII 2016-2018 were analyzed. The average isoflavone intake was estimated based on the 24-h dietary recall data in KNHANES and the isoflavone database from the Korea Rural Development Administration (RDA) and literatures. The usual isoflavone intake was estimated by applying the ratio of within-and between-participant variance estimated from the 2009 KNHANES data to the 7th KNHANES (2016-2018) data. The variance of the isoflavone intake was calculated using MIXTRAN macro with intake data for two days in the 2009 KNHANES. Complex sample analysis with stratified variables and integrated weights was conducted. RESULTS: The mean total isoflavone intake in the Korean population aged 1 yrs and older (n = 21,271) was 139.27 mg/d, which was higher than the usual intake of 47.44mg/d. Legumes were a major contributing food group (91%), with arrowroot being a major individual contributor to the isoflavone intake (67.2%), followed by 21.3% of soybean, 5.4% of bean sprouts, and 2.1% of tofu. The usual isoflavone intake was highest in the participants aged 50 to 64 yrs old and increased with age until 50 to 64 yrs and then decreased with further increases in age. The usual isoflavone intake of participants aged 65 yrs and older was higher for men than for women, showing gender differences. CONCLUSIONS: The usual dietary intake of isoflavone varied according to age and gender in the Korean population. This study showed that the usual isoflavone intake was lower than the average isoflavone intake. The difference between percentiles of the usual isoflavone intake was similarly smaller than the average intake. An estimation of average intake can be hindered by the occasional consumption of foods high in isoflavones, suggesting that the usual intake estimation method can be more appropriate. Further research will be needed to establish isoflavone dietary guidelines regarding the effects of isoflavone intake on health outcomes.
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- 자연과학대학 > 식품영양학과 > Journal Articles
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