Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction from Eucommia ulmoides Leaves on PM2.5-Induced Inflammation and Cognitive Dysfunctionopen access
- Kim, Min Ji; Kang, Jin Yong; Kim, Jong Min; Moon, Jong Hyun; Lee, Hyo Lim; Jeong, Hye Rin; Go, Min Ji; Lee, Uk; Heo, Ho Jin
- Issue Date
- HINDAWI LTD
- OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY, v.2022
- Journal Title
- OXIDATIVE MEDICINE AND CELLULAR LONGEVITY
- This study aimed to evaluate the protective effect of the ethyl acetate from Eucommia ulmoides leaves (EFEL) on PM2.5-induced cognitive impairment in BALB/c mice. EFEL improved PM2.5-induced cognitive decline by improving spontaneous alternative behavioral and long-term memory ability. EFEL increased ferric reducing activity power (FRAP) in serum. In addition, EFEL increased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) contents and inhibited the production of malondialdehyde (MDA) in lung and brain tissues. EFEL also restored the mitochondrial function by regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level, and ATP level in lung and brain tissues. EFEL ameliorated the cholinergic system by regulating the acetylcholine (ACh) content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the brain tissue and the expression of AChE and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the whole brain and hippocampal tissues. EFEL reduced PM2.5-induced excessive expression of inflammatory protein related to the lung, whole brain, olfactory bulb, and hippocampus. Physiological compounds of EFEL were identified as 5-O-caffeolyquinic acid, rutin, quercetin, and quercetin glycosides. As a result, EFEL has anti-inflammation and anti-amnesic effect on PM2.5-induced cognitive impairment by regulating the inflammation and inhibiting the lung and brain tissue dysfunction, and its effect is considered to be due to the physiological compounds of EFEL.
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