Pathogen effectors: What do they do at plasmodesmata?open access
- Iswanto, Arya Bagus Boedi; Vu, Minh Huy; Pike, Sharon; Lee, Jihyun; Kang, Hobin; Son, Geon Hui; Kim, Jae-Yean; Kim, Sang Hee
- Issue Date
- bacterial effectors; fungal effectors; host defence mechanism; plant immune response; plasmodesmata
- MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY, v.23, no.6, pp.795 - 804
- Journal Title
- MOLECULAR PLANT PATHOLOGY
- Start Page
- End Page
- Plants perceive an assortment of external cues during their life cycle, including abiotic and biotic stressors. Biotic stress from a variety of pathogens, including viruses, oomycetes, fungi, and bacteria, is considered to be a substantial factor hindering plant growth and development. To hijack the host cell's defence machinery, plant pathogens have evolved sophisticated attack strategies mediated by numerous effector proteins. Several studies have indicated that plasmodesmata (PD), symplasmic pores that facilitate cell-to-cell communication between a cell and neighbouring cells, are one of the targets of pathogen effectors. However, in contrast to plant-pathogenic viruses, reports of fungal- and bacterial-encoded effectors that localize to and exploit PD are limited. Surprisingly, a recent study of PD-associated bacterial effectors has shown that a number of bacterial effectors undergo cell-to-cell movement via PD. Here we summarize and highlight recent advances in the study of PD-associated fungal/oomycete/bacterial effectors. We also discuss how pathogen effectors interfere with host defence mechanisms in the context of PD regulation.
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