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文天祥 「正氣歌」의 人物典故 硏究open accessA Study on the literary Quotation of Wen Tianxiang's 'Zheng qi ge' Poem

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A Study on the literary Quotation of Wen Tianxiang's 'Zheng qi ge' Poem
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Wen Tianxiang; Zheng qi ge; Meng gu; Yamen; Yang tai hou; Duan zong; Zhang Hongfan; Zhang Shijie
한중언어문화연구, no.55, pp.103 - 134
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The ruler of Yuan(元) dynasty promised Wen Tianxiang(文天祥) high government positions, sometimes seducing him with profit, and sometimes persecuting him with duress. But he did not give in, swearing death. So he was detained in prison for three years. On December 9, 1283, he died proudly with a strong heart. The poem 「Zheng qi ge(正氣歌)」 was written in prison a year before his death under these circumstances. The poem can be divided into three paragraphs, depending on its content. "天地有正氣" to "一一垂丹青" is the first paragraph, "在齊太史簡" to "道義爲之根" is the second paragraph, and "嗟余遘陽九" to "古道照顔色" is the last third paragraph. In the first paragraph the poet preaches the power of ‘the Spirit, Zheng qi(正氣)’, saying "It has a great power to create the sun and stars in the sky and rivers and mountains in the lower part of the world, and in a peaceful times of the human world, it makes the palace happy." "In times of trouble, loyalty is revealed(時窮節乃見.)" runs through the whole theme of the poem. The second paragraph is largely divided into two parts. "在齊太史簡" refers to the exemplary loyalty of 12 historical figures, and "是氣所磅礴" to "道義爲之根" refers to the fact that all their actions are from the manifestations of the Spirit and the Spirit becomes the basis for maintaining heaven, earth and human beings. The third paragraph is largely divided into three sections. The first, "嗟予遘陽九" to "分作溝中瘠" describes the inhumane life at prison, and the second, "如此再寒暑" to "仰視浮雲白" depicts even in this miserable life the sombre place seems to e a haven under the influence of the Spirit. The third, "悠悠我心悲" to "古道照颜色," tells us that the poet aims to follow the formers who practiced this Spirit. In order to unite 55 non-Han minorities, not a single national hero in history could be considered to be an object of praise. But in New China, as far as Wen Tianxiang is concerned, positive assessments are still valid. Deng Biqing(鄧碧淸) says "It's completely different from the Mongols ruling group of those days and the hardworking and brave Mongols of today." Unless we fall into what is called "historical futility", he deserves to be praised as "his loyalty to the nation and its people is enough to break through the steel and reach the sky."
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