文天祥正氣歌詩에 보이는 歷史人物考釋A Study on the literary Quotation of Wen Tianxiang's 'Zheng qi ge(正氣歌)' Poem
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- A Study on the literary Quotation of Wen Tianxiang's 'Zheng qi ge(正氣歌)' Poem
- 황영희; 권호종
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- 세명대학교 인문사회과학연구소
- Wen Tianxiang; Zheng qi ge; Nobel Spirit; Nan Song; 문천상; 정기가; 호연정기; 남송; 원
- 인문사회과학연구, v.28, no.2, pp.295 - 325
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- The ruler of Yuan(元) dynasty promised Wen Tianxiang(文天祥) high government positions, sometimes seducing him with profit, and sometimes persecuting him with duress. But he did not give in, swearing death. So he was detained in prison for three years. On December 9, 1283, he died proudly with a strong heart. The poem 「Zheng qi ge(正氣歌)」 was written in prison a year before his death under these circumstances.
The poem can be divided into three paragraphs, depending on its content. "天地有正氣" to "一一垂丹青" is the first paragraph, "在齊太史簡" to "道義爲之根" is the second paragraph, and "嗟余遘陽九" to "古道照顔色" is the last third paragraph. And the second paragraph is largely divided into two parts. "在齊太史簡" refers to the exemplary loyalty of twelve historical figures, and "是氣所磅礴" to "道義爲之根" refers to the fact that all their actions are from the manifestations of the Spirit and the Spirit becomes the basis for maintaining heaven, earth and human beings. This study aims to investigate the lives of the twelve historical figures.
Wen Tianxiang sings the greatness of the Nobel Spirit(浩然正氣), referring to the existence of ‘the vital spirit(正氣)’ filling the universe, and takes the twelve historical persons who excelled in loyalty as prime examples of ‘vital spirit(正氣)’. Those persons he praised to have practiced this spirit are generals, ministers, and military personnel, including even the servant and the reclusive people of the ruined country. Some of these are officers, never being afraid of the officials who killed the monarchs to take power, wrote the truth with a pen, some risked their lives for revenge of the ruined country, and some did not surrender to the enemy's convictions to the end. Some are high minded persons who do not succumb to the end even if they die in the face of a strong enemy, and some are military officers who do not succumb to the enemy after losing a fight to become prisoners of the enemy. They are all because of the loyality to nation(忠烈).
Among these twelve men, persons such as Ji Shao(嵇紹) and Guan Ning(管寧) do not match the spirit he speaks of. However it also could be seen as a paradoxical expression that Wen Tianxiang emphasizes that ‘the vital spirit(正氣)’ is not manifested only by a specific person engaged in a specific job when the country faces difficulties and dangers. His thoughts only focuses on the monarch and the nation.
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