Fowlerstefin, a cysteine protease inhibitor of Naegleria fowleri, induces inflammatory responses in BV-2 microglial cells in vitroopen access
- Thai, Thi Lam; Kang, Jung-Mi; Le, Huong Giang; Lee, Jinyoung; Yoo, Won Gi; Shin, Ho-Joon; Sohn, Woon-Mok; Na, Byoung-Kuk
- Issue Date
- Naegleria fowleri; Cysteine protease inhibitor; Cysteine proteases; Microglial cells; Inflammatory response
- PARASITES & VECTORS, v.13, no.1
- Journal Title
- PARASITES & VECTORS
- Background Naegleria fowleri is a free-living amoeba that causes an opportunistic fatal infection known as primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM) in humans. Cysteine proteases produced by the amoeba may play critical roles in the pathogenesis of infection. In this study, a novel cysteine protease inhibitor of N. fowleri (fowlerstefin) was characterized to elucidate its biological function as an endogenous cysteine protease inhibitor of the parasite as well as a pathogenic molecule that induces immune responses in microglial cells. Methods Recombinant fowlerstefin was expressed in Escherichia coli. The inhibitory activity of fowlerstefin against several cysteine proteases, including human cathepsins B and L, papain and NfCPB-L, was analyzed. Fowlerstefin-induced pro-inflammatory response in BV-2 microglial cells was anayzed by cytokine array assay, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results Fowlerstefin is a cysteine protease inhibitor with a monomeric structure, and belongs to the stefin family. Recombinant fowlerstefin effectively inhibited diverse cysteine proteases including cathepsin B-like cysteine proteases of N. fowleri (NfCPB-L), human cathepsins B and L, and papain. Expression of fowlerstefin in the amoeba was optimal during the trophozoite stage and gradually decreased in cysts. Fowlerstefin induced an inflammatory response in BV-2 microglial cells. Fowlerstefin induced the expression of several pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines including IL-6 and TNF in BV-2 microglial cells. Fowlerstefin-induced expression of IL-6 and TNF in BV-2 microglial cells was regulated by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs). The inflammatory response induced by fowlerstefin in BV-2 microglial cells was downregulated via inhibition of NF-kappa B and AP-1. Conclusions Fowlerstefin is a pathogenic molecule that stimulates BV-2 microglial cells to produce pro-inflammatory cytokines through NF-kappa B- and AP-1-dependent MAPK signaling pathways. Fowlerstefin-induced inflammatory cytokines exacerbate the inflammatory response in N. fowleri-infected areas and contribute to the pathogenesis of PAM.
- Files in This Item
- There are no files associated with this item.
- Appears in
- College of Medicine > Department of Medicine > Journal Articles
Items in ScholarWorks are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.