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Decision-tree-based ion-specific dosing algorithm for enhancing closed hydroponic efficiency and reducing carbon emissionsopen access

Cho, Woo-JaeGang, Min-SeokKim, Dong-WookKim, JooShinJung, Dae-HyunKim, Hak-Jin
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Frontiers Media SA
carbon dioxide emissions; closed hydroponics; decision tree; dosing algorithm; ion-selective electrodes; ion-specific replenishment
Frontiers in Plant Science, v.14
Journal Title
Frontiers in Plant Science
The maintenance of ion balance in closed hydroponic solutions is essential to improve the crop quality and recycling efficiency of nutrient solutions. However, the absence of robust ion sensors for key ions such as P and Mg and the coupling of ions in fertilizer salts render it difficult to effectively manage ion-specific nutrient solutions. Although ion-specific dosing algorithms have been established, their effectiveness has been inadequately explored. In this study, a decision-tree-based dosing algorithm was developed to calculate the optimal volumes of individual nutrient stock solutions to be supplied for five major nutrient ions, i.e., NO3, K, Ca, P, and Mg, based on the concentrations of NO3, K, and Ca and remaining volume of the recycled nutrient solution. In the performance assessment based on five nutrient solution samples encompassing the typical concentration ranges for leafy vegetable cultivation, the ion-selective electrode array demonstrated feasible accuracies, with root mean square errors of 29.5, 10.1, and 6.1 mg·L-1 for NO3, K, and Ca, respectively. In a five-step replenishment test involving varying target concentrations and nutrient solution volumes, the system formulated nutrient solutions according to the specified targets, exhibiting average relative errors of 10.6 ± 8.0%, 7.9 ± 2.1%, 8.0 ± 11.0%, and 4.2 ± 3.7% for the Ca, K, and NO3 concentrations and volume of the nutrient solution, respectively. Furthermore, the decision tree method helped reduce the total fertilizer injections and carbon emissions by 12.8% and 20.6% in the stepwise test, respectively. The findings demonstrate that the decision-tree-based dosing algorithm not only enables more efficient reuse of nutrient solution compared to the existing simplex method but also confirms the potential for reducing carbon emissions, indicating the possibility of sustainable agricultural development. Copyright © 2023 Cho, Gang, Kim, Kim, Jung and Kim.
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농업생명과학대학 > 생물산업기계공학과 > Journal Articles


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Cho, Woo Jae
농업생명과학대학 (생물산업기계공학과)
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