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19세기 초 閩南 사회의 해양 인식* ― 廈門志 의 편찬 의도와 구성상 특징을 중심으로 ―The Maritime Perception of Southern Fujian Society in 19th century— Focused on the intention of compilation and compositional features of Xiamenzhi —

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The Maritime Perception of Southern Fujian Society in 19th century— Focused on the intention of compilation and compositional features of Xiamenzhi —
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이화여자대학교 이화사학연구소
민남(閩南); 민해관(閩海關); 천주(泉州); 하문(廈門); 하문지(廈門志); 동서양고(東西洋考); 주개(周凱); Minnan; Minhaiguan; Quanzhou; Xiamen; Xiamenzhi; Dongxiyangkao; Zhou Kai
이화사학연구, no.67, pp 131 - 171
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After subduing the Zheng Group鄭氏集團, the Qing Dynasty implemented an inclusive sea opening policy開海 towards coastal areas. Even though Fujian福建 had historically served as the primary stage for the Zheng Group's operations, it was still encompassed within the purview of the sea opening policy. The Qing Dynasty established the Minahaiguan閩海關 in Xiamen廈門, a city that had long been a prominent stronghold for the Zheng Group. Subsequently, Xiamen evolved into an official foreign trade harbor for Fujian. Xiamen also served as the home port for the Fujian Navy福建水師, which was the sole naval force of the Qing Dynasty that remained in existence throughout the entire duration of the dynasty. The primary mission of the Fujian Navy was to safeguard and maintain control over the Taiwan Strait, a crucial geographical feature integral to the maritime defense of the Qing Empire. In summary, Xiamen underwent a transformation into the principal foreign trade port of Fujian while simultaneously becoming a vital component of the empire's maritime security. Xiamenzhi廈門志 was compiled under the guidance of a person named Zhou Kai周凯. Zhou Kai gathered a significant amount of local data while holding prominent positions in Southern Fujian during the 1820s. Building upon the publication of the Fujiantongzhi福建通志, Zhou Kai incorporated the latest information and successfully finalized his project in 1832. In 1839, two years after Zhou Kai’s passing, his fellow officials published Xiamenzhi to memorialize him. Xiamenzhi differs from other gazetteers in several respects. First, unlike other gazetteers which treat larger areas at least over county縣, Xiamenzhi covers only a single island. Second, Xiamenzhi directed its attention towards the ‘expansive maritime regions associated with Xiamen,’ rather than concentrating solely on Xiamen proper. Third, limited space for chapters pertaining to educational institutions, official appointments, and biographical content, in stark contrast to the more prevalent inclusions found in other gazetteers. These distinctions can be attributed to the objectives set forth by the compilation team under the leadership of Zhou Kai. Xiamenzhi shares both similarities and differences with Dongxiyangkao東西洋考, a late Ming-era handbook on the maritime world authored by Fujian intellectuals. Initially, these works delineate distinct parameters for defining ‘the ocean,’ and they employ varying criteria for categorizing different ‘seas.’ Secondly, they presuppose dissimilar readerships, consequently highlighting distinct focal points. In summary, while both books revolve around ‘the maritime world,’ they are grounded in different ‘conceptions of the maritime world.’ Differences between these books mirror the evolving status of Fujian in two distinct historical periods. The geopolitical concept of ‘Maritime Directivity,’ which underlies Fujian society, became evident in diverse ways within the context of interactions among the ‘local,’ ‘imperial,’ and ‘overseas’ regions.
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