Clonorchis sinensis and clonorchiasis
- Na, Byoung-Kuk; Pak, Jhang Ho; Hong, Sung-Jong
- Issue Date
- Clonorchis sinensis; Chemotaxis; Cholangiocarcinoma; Bile transporter; Enzyme; Molecular diagnosis
- ACTA TROPICA, v.203
- Journal Title
- ACTA TROPICA
- Clonorchis sinensis is a fish-borne trematode that inhabits the bile duct of mammals including humans. Clonorchiasis is prevalent in China, Korea, and Vietnam, and 15-20 million people are estimated to be infected by this fluke. Freshwater snails act as the first intermediate host for the proliferation of C. sinensis larvae and shed the cercariae into water. The cercariae penetrate the skin of freshwater fish and transform to metacercariae. Humans are infected by eating raw or undercooked freshwater fish as dishes of filet, "sashimi," or congee, which contain C. sinensis metacercariae. In humans, the C. sinensis metacercariae excyst in the duodenum, and juvenile flukes migrate up via bile chemotaxis into bile ducts. Once there, C. sinensis provokes hyperplasia of the bile duct epithelium, obstructive jaundice, ascites, liver enlargement and cirrhosis, and infrequent cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Although the association between C. sinensis infection and CCA has been firmly established in past decades, the underlying mechanisms are not elucidated in detail. In the context of chronic clonorchiasis-associated hepatobiliary aberrations, the constitutive disruption of redox homeostasis and dysregulation of physiological signaling pathways may promote the malignant transformation of cholangiocytes, thus leading to substantial acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype by these cells: CCA. With advances of genomic and molecular biological approaches, diverse C. sinensis proteins that are essential for parasite physiology and pathogenicity have been identified and characterized. Some of the proteins have been considered as attractive targets for development of vaccines and chemotherapeutics. Candidate antigens for reliable serodiagnosis of clonorchiasis have been studied.
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- College of Medicine > Department of Medicine > Journal Articles
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