Omega Rhodopsins: A Versatile Class of Microbial Rhodopsinsopen access
- Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Jun, Sung-Hoon; Kim, Jihyun F.
- Issue Date
- KOREAN SOC MICROBIOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY
- 3 omega motif; actinorhodopsin (ActR); chloride pump rhodopsin (ClR); sodium pump rhodopsin (NaR); xanthorhodopsin (XR)
- JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY, v.30, no.5, pp.633 - 641
- Journal Title
- JOURNAL OF MICROBIOLOGY AND BIOTECHNOLOGY
- Start Page
- End Page
- Microbial rhodopsins are a superfamily of photoactive membrane proteins with the covalently bound retinal cofactor. Isomerization of the retinal chromophore upon absorption of a photon triggers conformational changes of the protein to function as ion pumps or sensors. After the discovery of proteorhodopsin in an uncultivated gamma-proteobacterium, light-activated proton pumps have been widely detected among marine bacteria and, together with chlorophyll-based photosynthesis, are considered as an important axis responsible for primary production in the biosphere. Rhodopsins and related proteins show a high level of phylogenetic diversity; we focus on a specific class of bacterial rhodopsins containing the '3 omega motif.' This motif forms a stack of three non-consecutive aromatic amino acids that correlates with the B-C loop orientation and is shared among the phylogenetically close ion pumps such as the NDQ motif-containing sodium-pumping rhodopsin, the NTQ motif-containing chloride-pumping rhodopsin, and some proton-pumping rhodopsins including xanthorhodopsin. Here, we reviewed the recent research progress on these 'omega rhodopsins,' and speculated on their evolutionary origin of functional diversity.
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