Lower serum sodium levels predict poor clinical outcomes in patients with insomniaopen access
- Bae, Eunjin; Lee, Tae Won; Jang, Ha Nee; Cho, Hyun Seop; Jung, Sehyun; Lee, Seunghye; Chang, Se-Ho; Park, Dong Jun
- Issue Date
- Insomnia; Mortality; Serum sodium; Hyponatremia
- BMC NEPHROLOGY, v.21, no.1
- Journal Title
- BMC NEPHROLOGY
- BackgroundThe association between lower serum sodium levels and the clinical outcomes of insomnia patients remains unclear. We explored whether lower serum sodium is associated with poor clinical outcomes in patients with insomnia.MethodsWe retrospectively enrolled patients with a diagnosis of insomnia from January 2011 to December 2012. We divided participants into three groups according to initial serum sodium level: tertile 1 (<138mmol/L), tertile 2 (138.0-140.9mmol/L), and tertile 3 (<greater than or equal to> 141.0mmol/L). To calculate the relative risk of death, hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were obtained using Cox proportional hazard models.ResultsA total of 412 patients with insomnia were included, of whom 13.6% (n=56) had hyponatremia. Patients with lower serum sodium concentrations were older and had lower hemoglobin, calcium, phosphorus, and albumin levels. At the median follow-up of 49.4months, 44 patients had died and 62 experienced acute kidney injury (AKI). Kaplan-Meier analysis showed significantly higher mortality in patients in the lowest tertile for serum sodium. The lowest tertile of the serum sodium level and the AKI were associated with all-cause mortality. However, the lowest tertile of the serum sodium level was not significantly associated with AKI.ConclusionsThe lowest tertile of the serum sodium level was associated with a higher mortality rate in insomnia patients. Our results suggest that the serum sodium level could serve as a prognostic factor in insomniacs; patients with lower sodium levels require particular care.
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- College of Medicine > Department of Medicine > Journal Articles
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