Fermentation of Sprouted Ginseng (Panax ginseng) Increases Flavonoid and Phenolic Contents to Attenuate Alcoholic Hangover and Acute Liver Injury in Mice
- Je, Jihyun; Kim, Hwajin; Park, Eun Jung; Kim, So Ra; Dusabimana, Theodomir; Jeong, Kyuho; Yun, Seung Phil; Kim, Hye Jung; Cho, Kye Man; Park, Sang Won
- Issue Date
- WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD
- Acute Liver Injury; Alcohol; Anti-oxidant; Fermentation; Hangover; Sprout Ginseng
- AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE, v.49, no.01, pp.131 - 146
- Journal Title
- AMERICAN JOURNAL OF CHINESE MEDICINE
- Start Page
- End Page
- Alcoholic liver damage is caused by ethanol and its oxidized intermediates, and endotoxin-induced acute liver failure is mediated by apoptosis and inflammation. We investigated whether extracts of sprouts of Panax ginseng (SG) attenuate alcohol or endotoxin-induced acute liver injury in mice. Whole SG contains eight times more ginsenosides than the root and, because it grows quickly ( similar to 30 days) without using pesticides, the whole-plant can be harvested. The extracts were enriched in phenolics and flavonoids and showed high radical scavenging activities. Mice received oral administration of SG or fermented SG (FSG) extracts 1 h before an injection of either ethanol or lipopolysaccharide and D-galactosamine (LPS/GalN). The latency of righting reflex was monitored to examine the effect of extracts on relieving hangover symptoms. The results indicate that FSG significantly reduced the latency of righting reflex, SG and FSG increased the activity and expression of ethanol-metabolizing enzymes, and FSG decreased hepatic necrosis and plasma levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). During the ethanol metabolism, cytochrome P450 2E1 expression was increased, but 4-hydroxynonenal levels were decreased by the extracts due to their anti-oxidant activity. LPS/GalN-induced liver injury was reduced by SG and FSG; plasma ALT and AST levels, hepatic necrosis, and apoptotic and inflammatory markers were all decreased. In conclusion, SG extracts attenuated ethanol-induced hangover and endotoxin-induced acute liver injury, and fermentation enhanced the efficacy with regard to relieving hangover.
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- 농업생명과학대학 > 식품공학부 > Journal Articles
- College of Medicine > Department of Medicine > Journal Articles
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