Inhaled bosentan microparticles for the treatment of monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats
- Lee, Hyo-Jung; Kwon, Yong-Bin; Kang, Ji-Hyun; Oh, Dong-Won; Park, Eun-Seok; Rhee, Yun-Seok; Kim, Ju-Young; Shin, Dae-Hwan; Kim, Dong-Wook; Park, Chun-Woong
- Issue Date
- Pulmonary delivery; Dry powder inhalers; Bosentan; Pulmonary arterial hypertension; Spray-drying; Monocrotaline
- JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE, v.329, pp.468 - 481
- Journal Title
- JOURNAL OF CONTROLLED RELEASE
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- End Page
- The conventional treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) with oral bosentan hydrate has limitations related to the lack of pulmonary selectivity. In this study, we verified the hypothesis of the feasibility of dry powder inhalation of bosentan as an alternative to oral bosentan hydrate for the treatment of PAH. Inhalable bosentan microparticles with the capability of delivery to the peripheral region of the lungs and enhanced bioavailability have been formulated for PAH. The bosentan microparticles were prepared by the co-spray-drying method with bosentan hydrate and mannitol at different weight ratios. The bosentan microparticles were then characterized for their physicochemical properties, in vitro dissolution behavior, and in vitro aerodynamic performance. The in vivo pharmacokinetics and pathological characteristics were evaluated in a monocrotaline-induced rat model of PAH after intratracheal powder administration of bosentan microparticles, in comparison to orally administered bosentan hydrate. The highest performance bosentan microparticles, named SDBM 1:1, had irregular and porous shape. These microparticles had not only the significantly highest aerosol performance (MMAD of 1.91 mu m and FPF of 51.68%) in the formulations, but also significantly increased dissolution rate, compared with the raw bosentan hydrate. This treatment to the lungs was also safe, as evidenced by the cytotoxicity assay. Intratracheally administered SDBM 1:1 elicited a significantly higher C-max and AUC(0-t) that were over 10 times higher, compared with those of the raw bosentan hydrate administered orally in the same dose. It also exhibited ameliorative effects on monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial remodeling, and right ventricular hypertrophy. The survival rate of the group administrated SDBM1:1 intratracheally was 0.92 at the end of study (Positive control and orally administrated groups were 0.58 and 0.38, respectively). In conclusion, SDBM 1:1 showed promising in vitro and in vivo results with the dry powder inhalation. The inhaled bosentan microparticles can be considered as a potential alternative to oral bosentan hydrate for the treatment of PAH.
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