Prevalence of Pathogens and Other Microorganisms in Premenopausal and Postmenopausal Women with Vulvovaginal Symptoms: A Retrospective Study in a Single Institute in South Koreaopen access
- Baek, Jong-Chul; Jo, Hyen-Chul; Lee, Seon-Mi; Park, Ji-Eun; Cho, In-Ae; Sung, Joo-Hyun
- Issue Date
- vulvovaginal symptoms; multiplex real-time PCR test; Ureaplasma parvum; menopause; Gardnerella vaginalis
- MEDICINA-LITHUANIA, v.57, no.6
- Journal Title
- Background and Objectives: Vaginitis causes vulvovaginal symptoms, including itching, irritation, vaginal discharge, burning, or foul odor. It is one of the most common diseases encountered in gynecologic practice. Hypoestrogenism due to menopause has a considerable negative effect on vaginal health and leads to changes in the vaginal pH and vaginal microflora, which are related to a change in the causes and microorganisms of vaginitis. Thus the aim here was to investigate the prevalence of pathogens and other microorganisms in premenopausal and postmenopausal women with vulvovaginal symptoms, using an STD 12-Multiplex real-time PCR test and routine culture of vaginal discharge. Materials and Methods: From January 2018 to December 2019, records of patients diagnosed with vaginitis at Changwon Gyeongsang National University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The premenopausal and postmenopausal subjects were categorized into Group A and Group B, respectively. and the data of symptoms, general characteristics, and results of both STD 12-Multiplex real-time PCR test and routine culture of vaginal discharge were retrieved. Results: On the STD 12-Multiplex real-time PCR test, Gardnerella vaginalis was the most common microorganism in both groups. Ureaplasma parvum was the second most common one, followed by Candida speceies. On the routine culture of vaginal discharge, Escherichia coli was the most common aerobic bacterial microorganism in both groups, followed by Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS). There was no significant difference between the two groups. Pathogens and other microorganisms of patients with vulvovaginal symptoms that showed a statistically significant difference between the two groups were Ureaplasa parvum, Ureaplasma urealyticulum, Trichomonas vaginalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Conclusion: In this study, the prevalence of pathogens and other microorganisms in menopausal women with vulvovaginal symptoms did not show a significant difference from premenopausal women. Therefore, management strategies for patients with vulvovaginal symptoms should be developed through accurate diagnosis using appropriate diagnostic methods.
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