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Effects of Olive (Olea europaea L.) Leaves with Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities on In Vitro Ruminal Fermentation and Methane Emissionopen access

Lee, Shin JaKim, Hyun SangEom, Jun SikChoi, You YoungJo, Seong UkChu, Gyo MoonLee, YookyungSeo, JakyeomKim, Kyoung HoonLee, Sung Sill
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olive leaves; antioxidant; antimicrobial agent; ruminal fermentation; methane production; animal feed
ANIMALS, v.11, no.7
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Simple Summary Olives are cultivated mostly in the Mediterranean as well as in Asia Minor, Korea, Japan, and China. Olive oil is currently used as a food ingredient in human diet, and its consumption is gradually expanding in various countries. Therefore, olive cultivation and oil extraction produce a significant amount of byproducts; providing these byproducts as feed to livestock has been attempted for a long period. Economic, environmental, and nutritional considerations make the use of olive byproducts efficient and cost-effective as feed for ruminants. Among the olive byproducts, olive leaves (OLs) contain higher levels of polyphenols than olive fruits, and have a very high feed value. In this study, it was confirmed that methane production decreased during 12 h of in vitro fermentation, and the number of fat-utilizing microorganisms increased in the 5% OLs group. OLs were found to show antioxidant and antimicrobial activity. Moreover, the proportion of cellulose-degrading bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens increased in the 5% OLs group at 12 h and decreased at 24 h. Olive leaves are believed to be very useful as feed additives and supplements for ruminants. We evaluated whether olive leaves (OLs) are effective as feed additives and supplements for ruminants and the potential methane reduction effects during in vitro fermentation. Two Hanwoo cows (460 +/- 20 kg) equipped with cannula were fed Timothy hay and corn-based feed 3% of the body weight at a ratio of 6:4 (8:30 a.m. and 5:00 p.m.). Ruminal fluid from the cows was collected and mixed before morning feeding. In vitro batch fermentation was monitored after 12 and 24 h of incubation at 39 degrees C, and OLs were used as supplements to achieve the concentration of 5% in the basal diet. At 12 h of fermentation, methane production decreased in the 5% OLs group compared to that in the control group, but not at 24 h. The proportion of cellulose-degrading bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, tended to increase in the 5% OLs group at 12 h. The amount of ammonia produced was the same as the polymerase chain reaction result for Prevotella ruminicola. At 12 h, the proportion of Prevotella ruminicola was significantly higher in the 5% OLs group. OLs may be used incorporated with protein byproducts or other methane-reducing agents in animal feed.
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