Bacterial Disease Complex Including Bleached Spot, Soft Rot, and Blight on Onion Seedlings Caused by Complex Infections
- Choi, Okhee; Kang, Byeongsam; Lee, Yeyeong; Kim, Seunghoe; Kwon, Jin-Hyeuk; Lee, Jong-Tae; Kim, Jinwoo
- Issue Date
- AMER PHYTOPATHOLOGICAL SOC
- Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae; bacterial disease complex; bleached spot; blight; onion; Pantoea ananatis; Pseudomonas viridiflava; soft rot; Xanthomonas axonopodis
- PLANT DISEASE, v.105, no.12, pp.3943 - 3949
- Journal Title
- PLANT DISEASE
- Start Page
- End Page
- In 2018, a bacterial disease complex composed of bleached spots and soft rot-blight on onion seedlings was observed in nursery beds in Changnyeong, a major onion-producing county in South Korea. Four bacteria isolated from the diseased lesions were identified: Pseudomonas viridiflava, Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae, Pantoea ananatis, and Xanthomonas axonopodis, respectively. We referred to the four strains as a "bacterial disease complex" because they were isolated from the same sample with multiple symptoms. We examined the synergistic activity among the four strains to understand their relationships and roles. We monitored in vivo bacterial population density and disease progression after artificially inoculating the bacteria on onion seedlings at a temperature of 22 or 28 degrees C. The disease pattern progressed sooner at 28 than at 22 degrees C (by an average of 4 to 6 days). The rate of disease progression induced by inoculation of P. ananatis alone was consistent with that induced by coinoculation of P. ananatis with the other strains, regardless of the temperature (22 or 28 degrees C). The in vivo growth of P. ananatis on onion seedlings was not different after inoculation alone versus together with the other strains. The rate of disease progression induced by P. viridiflava was similar when inoculated alone and when inoculated with other tree strains at 28 degrees C, but disease progression induced by inoculation alone was slower at 22 degrees C. The in vivo growth of P. viridiflava or X. axonopodis on onion seedlings decreased rapidly or gradually, respectively, when inoculated with the other strains. Coinfection with the other three strains had repression effects on the growth of P. viridiflava, a slight effect on X. axonopodis, and no effect on P. or A. avenae subsp. avenae in vivo. These results indicate that the strains coexist or interact antagonistically, rather than synergistically, depending on the conditions. These results were consistent with the results of the in vitro growth inhibition assay, in which P. viridiflava growth was inhibited by X. axonopodis or P. ananatis. These results also confirmed that X. axonopodis is present on bleached spots and P. viridiflava on soft rot-blight lesions, and that P. viridiflava and P. ananatis cause soft rot-blight but do not coexist. A. avenae subsp. avenae is a minor causative pathogen of bleached spots on onion seedlings, but it is not significantly affected by temperature and has no antagonistic or synergistic interactions with X. axonopodis.
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