Root GS and NADH-GDH Play Important Roles in Enhancing the Ammonium Tolerance in Three Bedding Plantsopen access
- Song, Jinnan; Yang, Jingli; Jeong, Byoung Ryong
- Issue Date
- nitrogen use efficiency (NUE); ammonium toxicity; salvia; petunia; ageratum; photosynthesis; nitrogen-carbohydrate distributions
- INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, v.23, no.3
- Journal Title
- INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
- Ammonium is a paradoxical nutrient because it is more metabolically efficient than nitrate, but also causes plant stresses in excess, i.e., ammonium toxicity. Current knowledge indicates that ammonium tolerance is species-specific and related to the ammonium assimilation enzyme activities. However, the mechanisms underlying the ammonium tolerance in bedding plants remain to be elucidated. The study described herein explores the primary traits contributing to the ammonium tolerance in three bedding plants. Three NH4+:NO3- ratios (0:100, 50:50, 100:0) were supplied to salvia, petunia, and ageratum. We determined that they possessed distinct ammonium tolerances: salvia and petunia were, respectively, extremely sensitive and moderately sensitive to high NH4+ concentrations, whereas ageratum was tolerant to NH4+, as characterized by the responses of the shoot and root growth, photosynthetic capacity, and nitrogen (amino acid and soluble protein)-carbohydrate (starch) distributions. An analysis of the major nitrogen assimilation enzymes showed that the root GS (glutamine synthetase) and NADH-GDH (glutamate dehydrogenase) activities in ageratum exhibited a dose-response relationship (reinforced by 25.24% and 6.64%, respectively) as the NH4+ level was raised from 50% to 100%; but both enzyme activities were significantly diminished in salvia. Besides, negligible changes of GS activities monitored in leaves revealed that only the root GS and NADH-GDH underpin the ammonium tolerances of the three bedding plants.
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