Case Report: Acute Kidney Injury Due to Chronic Milk-Alkali Syndrome in a Patient With Colon Canceropen access
- Lee, Hyo Jin; Yoon, Seokho; Choi, Bong-Hoi; Lee, Seunghye; Jung, Sehyun; Jang, Ha Nee; Chang, Se-Ho; Kim, Hyun-Jung
- Issue Date
- FRONTIERS MEDIA SA
- hypercalcemia; milk-alkali syndrome; Burnett syndrome; paraneoplastic syndrome; metastatic calcification
- FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE, v.9
- Journal Title
- FRONTIERS IN MEDICINE
- BackgroundCommon causes of hypercalcemia include primary hyperparathyroidism and paraneoplastic syndrome of malignancy. Because of this, physicians can easily miss extrinsic causes of hypercalcemia such as milk-alkali syndrome in patients with cancer. We successfully treated a case of acute kidney injury due to severe hypercalcemia caused by milk-alkali syndrome due to long-term milk drinking in a patient with colon cancer. Case DescriptionA 62-year-old man was referred to nephrology for hypercalcemia and azotemia that was found during preoperative evaluation for colon cancer surgery. The patient had experienced several months of dizziness and anorexia. We started hemodialysis because hypercalcemia and azotemia were not improved despite large amounts of hydration and diuretics. We suspected paraneoplastic syndrome because of concomitant colon cancer and low intact parathyroid hormone (PTH). Renal microcalcifications were observed on ultrasonography. Metastatic calcifications of the lung and stomach were present, but no malignant metastasis appeared on bone scans. There was no evidence of metastatic malignant lesions on chest or abdominal enhanced computed tomography. PTH-related peptide was not detected. Thus, other causes of hypercalcemia beyond malignancy were considered. On history-taking, the patient reported consuming 1,000 to 1,200 mL of milk daily for the prior 3 months. Hypercalcemia was due to chronic milk-alkali syndrome. We advised withdrawal of milk and nutritional pills. Hemodialysis was stopped after 2 weeks since azotemia and hypercalcemia were resolving. Acute kidney injury was improved, and mild hypercalcemia remained when he underwent hemicolectomy after 1 month. Thereafter, serum calcium and creatinine remained normal at discharge and follow-up for 1 year in the outpatient clinic. However, lung calcifications still remained on bone scan after 1 year. ConclusionsChronic milk-alkali syndrome is a rare condition resulting from excessive calcium and alkali intake through various routes, like milk, nutritional supplements, and medicines for osteoporosis. Therefore, early management for hypercalcemia should include precise history taking including diet, previous diagnoses, and current medications.
- Files in This Item
- There are no files associated with this item.
- Appears in
- College of Medicine > Department of Medicine > Journal Articles
Items in ScholarWorks are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.