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Decreased Solution pH and Increased K+ Uptake Are Related to Ammonium Tolerance in Hydroponically Cultured Plantsopen access

Authors
Song, JinnanYang, JingliJeong, Byoung Ryong
Issue Date
Mar-2022
Publisher
MDPI
Keywords
hydroponics; acidification; calcium; magnesium; electrical conductivity (EC)
Citation
HORTICULTURAE, v.8, no.3
Indexed
SCIE
SCOPUS
Journal Title
HORTICULTURAE
Volume
8
Number
3
URI
https://scholarworks.bwise.kr/gnu/handle/sw.gnu/1589
DOI
10.3390/horticulturae8030228
ISSN
2311-7524
Abstract
The ammonium (NH4+) tolerance of plants is an important issue in agriculture, associated with several plant characteristics. So far, plant tissue acidification has been shown as the primary cause of NH4+ toxicity. Suppressed plant growth caused by excess NH4+ can be counteracted by potassium (K+) application. However, the effects of NH4+ tolerances on the differences regarding pH changes together with K+ uptake remain to be determined. Here, we performed an 84 h hydroponic cultivation of five species with different NH4+ tolerances, subjected to three NH4+:NO3- solutions (0:100, 50:50, or 100:0), to investigate the pH changes and ion uptakes. Consequently, the solution pH was lowered over time to varying extents in the presence of NH4+. The NH4+-tolerant ageratum and lettuce, shown to be tolerant to NH4+ in this trial, rapidly lowered the solution pH, whereas extremely NH4+-sensitive salvia and cabbage only gave a minor decrease in the solution pH when grown with 100:0 NH4+:NO3-. Additionally, the increased external NH4+ level led to a substantial decline in the net cation influxes (K+, Ca2+, and Mg2+). As compared to solely NH4+-fed salvia and cabbage, solely NH4+-fed ageratum and lettuce ultimately showed a relatively greater net K+ influx. Taken together, this study discusses how the decreases in pH and K+ are related to NH4+ tolerance in five hydroponically cultured species.
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