Amorphigenin from Amorpha fruticosa L. Root Extract Induces Autophagy-Mediated Melanosome Degradation in mTOR-Independent- and AMPK-Dependent Manneropen access
- Lee, Ki Won; Dang Thi Nguyen; Kim, Minju; Lee, Si Hyeon; Lim, Seyeon; Kim, Jisu; Park, Ki Hun; Kim, Jeong Yoon; Yoo, Jiyun; Hwangbo, Cheol; Kim, Kwang Dong
- Issue Date
- Amorpha fruticosa L; depigmentation; autophagy; amorphigenin; AMPK
- CURRENT ISSUES IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, v.44, no.7, pp.2856 - 2867
- Journal Title
- CURRENT ISSUES IN MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
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- End Page
- In this study, we investigated the depigmentation effect of Amorpha fruticosa L. root extract (RE), an herbal medicine. A. fruticosa RE significantly induced depigmentation in alpha-MSH-treated B16F10 cells at noncytotoxic concentrations. Further, the RE decreased the protein levels of the melanosomal proteins Tyr and Pmel without decreasing their transcript levels. We found that MG132, a proteasome complex inhibitor, was unable to rescue the protein levels, but PepA/E-64D (a lysosomal enzyme inhibitor), 3-MA (a representative autophagy inhibitor), and ATG5 knockdown effectively rescued the protein levels and inhibited the depigmentation effect following RE treatment. Among rotenoids, amorphigenin composed in the RE was identified as a functional chemical that could induce depigmentation; whereas rapamycin, an mTOR inhibitor and a nonselective autophagy inducer, could not induce depigmentation, and amorphigenin effectively induced depigmentation through the degradation of melanosomal proteins. Amorphigenin activated AMPK without affecting mTOR, and knockdown of AMPK offset the whitening effect through degradation of melanosome proteins by amorphigenin. Results from this study suggested that amorphigenin can induce degradation of the melanosome through an AMPK-dependent autophagy process, and has the potential to be used as a depigmentation agent for the treatment of hyperpigmentation.
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- 자연과학대학 > Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering > Journal Articles
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