Single-strand annealing: Molecular mechanisms and potential applications in CRISPR-Cas-based precision genome editing
- Tien Van Vu; Das, Swati; Cam Chau Nguyen; Kim, Jihae; Kim, Jae-Yean
- Issue Date
- WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH
- alternative end-joining; CRISPR-Cas; DSB repair; genome editing; single-strand annealing (SSA)
- BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL, v.17, no.7
- Journal Title
- BIOTECHNOLOGY JOURNAL
- Background Spontaneous double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) frequently occur within the genome of all living organisms and must be well repaired for survival. Recently, more important roles of the DSB repair pathways that were previously thought to be minor pathways, such as single-strand annealing (SSA), have been shown. Nevertheless, the biochemical mechanisms and applications of the SSA pathway in genome editing have not been updated. Purpose and Scope Understanding the molecular mechanism of SSA is important to design potential applications in gene editing. This review provides insights into the recent progress of SSA studies and establishes a model for their potential applications in precision genome editing. Summary and Conclusion The SSA mechanism involved in DNA DSB repair appears to be activated by a complex signaling cascade starting with broken end sensing and 5 '-3 ' resection to reveal homologous repeats on the 3 ' ssDNA overhangs that flank the DSB. Annealing the repeats would help to amend the discontinuous ends and restore the intact genome, resulting in the missing of one repeat and the intervening sequence between the repeats. We proposed a model for CRISPR-Cas-based precision insertion or replacement of DNA fragments to take advantage of the characteristics. The proposed model can add a tool to extend the choice for precision gene editing. Nevertheless, the model needs to be experimentally validated and optimized with SSA-favorable conditions for practical applications.
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