Ongoing Research on the Role of Gintonin in the Management of Neurodegenerative Disordersopen access
- Ikram, Muhammad; Ullah, Rahat; Khan, Amjad; Kim, Myeong Ok
- Issue Date
- gintonin; neurodegenerative disorders; lysophosphatidic acid receptors
- CELLS, v.9, no.6
- Journal Title
- Neurodegenerative disorders, namely Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and multiple sclerosis (MS), are increasingly major health concerns due to the increasingly aged population worldwide. These conditions often share the same underlying pathological mechanisms, including elevated oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and the aggregation of proteins. Several studies have highlighted the potential to diminish the clinical outcomes of these disorders via the administration of herbal compounds, among which gintonin, a derivative of ginseng, has shown promising results. Gintonin is a noncarbohydrate/saponin that has been characterized as a lysophosphatidic acid receptor (LPA Receptor) ligand. Gintonin may cause a significant elevation in calcium levels [Ca2+]i intracellularly, which promotes calcium-mediated cellular effects via the modulation of ion channels and cell surface receptors, regulating the inflammatory effects. Years of research have suggested that gintonin has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects against different models of neurodegeneration, and these effects may be employed to tackle the neurological changes. Therefore, we collected the main scientific findings and comprehensively presented them, covering preparation, absorption, and receptor-mediated functions, including effects against Alzheimer's disease models, Parkinson's disease models, anxiety and depression-like models, and other neurological disorders, aiming to provide some insights for the possible usage of gintonin in the management of neurodegenerative conditions.
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