Retinoic acid exerts neuroprotective effects against focal cerebral ischemia by preventing apoptotic cell death
- Kang, Ju-Bin; Park, Dong-Ju; Shah, Murad-Ali; Koh, Phil-Ok
- Issue Date
- ELSEVIER IRELAND LTD
- Bcl-2; Caspase-3; Focal cerebral ischemia; Neuroprotection; Poly ADP-ribose polymerase
- NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS, v.757
- Journal Title
- NEUROSCIENCE LETTERS
- Cerebral ischemia is a neurological disorder that leads to cognitive decline and high mortality. Retinoic acid is a metabolite of vitamin A that has anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. This study investigated whether retinoic acid prevents neuronal cell damage on focal cerebral ischemia through modulating apoptosis signaling pathway. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was performed to induce focal cerebral ischemia in adult male rats. Retinoic acid (5 mg/kg) or vehicle was injected intraperitoneally for 4 days prior to MCAO. Neurological behavior deficit tests were performed 24 h after MCAO. Brain edema and infarct volume were measured, and TUNEL histochemistry was carried out. We also investigated the changes in apoptosis-related proteins including bcl-2 family proteins and caspases. MCAO injury induced severe neurological behavior deficits and brain edema. It also increased infarct volume, histopathological damages, and the number of TUNEL-positive cells in cerebral cortex. However, retinoic acid pretreatment attenuated MCAO-induced neurological behavior deficits, brain edema, and infarction. It also alleviated histopathological lesion and decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells. Bcl-2 and bax proteins are representative bcl-2 family proteins. MCAO injury induced a decrease in bcl-2 expression and an increase in bax expression, and retinoic acid pretreatment alleviated these changes. MCAO injury caused a decrease in bcl-2/bax expression ratio in cerebral cortex, while retinoic acid restored this decrease by MCAO. Moreover, our result showed increases in caspase-9, caspase-3, PARP protein levels in MCAO-operated animals. Retinoic acid pretreatment prevented these increases. We identified the changes in cleaved forms of these proteins, similar to the changes in full-length protein. Activation of caspases and PARP proteins are considered to be representative apoptosis indicators. This study showed that retinoic acid regulates bcl-2 family proteins and caspase proteins in focal cerebral ischemia. Thus, our findings demonstrate that retinoic acid exhibits a neuroprotective effect against ischemic damage by modulating apoptosis signaling pathway.
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- 수의과대학 > Department of Veterinary Medicine > Journal Articles
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