17 beta-Estradiol Abrogates Oxidative Stress and Neuroinflammation after Cortical Stab Wound Injuryopen access
- Saeed, Kamran; Jo, Myeung Hoon; Park, Jun Sung; Alam, Sayed Ibrar; Khan, Ibrahim; Ahmad, Riaz; Khan, Amjad; Ullah, Rahat; Kim, Myeong Ok
- Issue Date
- traumatic brain injury; 17 beta-estradiol; neuroprotection; oxidative stress; neuroinflammation; astrocytosis; microglial polarization; neurodegeneration
- ANTIOXIDANTS, v.10, no.11
- Journal Title
- Disruptions in brain energy metabolism, oxidative damage, and neuroinflammation are commonly seen in traumatic brain injury (TBI). Microglial activation is the hallmark of neuroinflammation. After brain injury, microglia also act as a double-edged sword with distinctive phenotypic changes. Therefore, therapeutic applications to potentiate microglia towards pro-inflammatory response following brain injury have become the focus of attention in recent years. Here, in the current study, we investigated the hypothesis that 17 beta-estradiol could rescue the mouse brain against apoptotic cell death and neurodegeneration by suppressing deleterious proinflammatory response probably by abrogating metabolic stress and oxidative damage after brain injury. Male C57BL/6N mice were used to establish a cortical stab wound injury (SWI) model. Immediately after brain injury, the mice were treated with 17 beta-estradiol (10 mg/kg, once every day via i.p. injection) for one week. Immunoblotting and immunohistochemical analysis was performed to examine the cortical and hippocampal brain regions. For the evaluation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reduced glutathione (GSH), and oxidized glutathione (GSSG), we used specific kits. Our findings revealed that 17 beta-estradiol treatment significantly alleviated SWI-induced energy dyshomeostasis and oxidative stress by increasing the activity of phospho-AMPK (Thr172) and by regulating the expression of an antioxidant gene (Nrf2) and cytoprotective enzymes (HO-1 and GSH) to mitigate ROS. Importantly, 17 beta-estradiol treatment downregulated gliosis and proinflammatory markers (iNOS and CD64) while significantly augmenting an anti-inflammatory response as evidenced by the robust expression of TGF-beta and IGF-1 after brain injury. The treatment with 17 beta-estradiol also reduced inflammatory mediators (Tnf-alpha, IL-1 beta, and COX-2) in the injured mouse. Moreover, 17 beta-estradiol administration rescued p53-associated apoptotic cell death in the SWI model by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins (Bax and Bcl-2) and caspase-3 activation. Finally, SWI + 17 beta-estradiol-treated mice illustrated reduced brain lesion volume and enhanced neurotrophic effect and the expression of synaptic proteins. These findings suggest that 17 beta-estradiol is an effective therapy against the brain secondary injury-induced pathological cascade following trauma, although further studies may be conducted to explore the exact mechanisms.
- Files in This Item
- There are no files associated with this item.
- Appears in
- ETC > Journal Articles
Items in ScholarWorks are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.