In Vivo Rapid Investigation of CRISPR-Based Base Editing Components in Escherichia coli (IRI-CCE): A Platform for Evaluating Base Editing Tools and Their Componentsopen access
- Shelake, Rahul Mahadev; Pramanik, Dibyajyoti; Kim, Jae-Yean
- Issue Date
- base editing; CRISPR; genome editing; heterologous expression
- INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES, v.23, no.3
- Journal Title
- INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MOLECULAR SCIENCES
- Rapid assessment of clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated protein (CRISPR/Cas)-based genome editing (GE) tools and their components is a critical aspect for successful GE applications in different organisms. In many bacteria, double-strand breaks (DSBs) generated by CRISPR/Cas tool generally cause cell death due to the lack of an efficient nonhomologous end-joining pathway and restricts its use. CRISPR-based DSB-free base editors (BEs) have been applied for precise nucleotide (nt) editing in bacteria, which does not need to make DSBs. However, optimization of newer BE tools in bacteria is challenging owing to the toxic effects of BE reagents expressed using strong promoters. Improved variants of two main BEs, cytidine base editor (CBE) and adenine base editor (ABE), capable of converting C to T and A to G, respectively, have been recently developed but yet to be tested for editing characteristics in bacteria. Here, we report a platform for in vivo rapid investigation of CRISPR-BE components in Escherichia coli (IRI-CCE) comprising a combination of promoters and terminators enabling the expression of nCas9-based BE and sgRNA to nontoxic levels, eventually leading to successful base editing. We demonstrate the use of IRI-CCE to characterize different variants of CBEs (PmCDA1, evoCDA1, APOBEC3A) and ABEs (ABE8e, ABE9e) for bacteria, exhibiting that each independent BE has its specific editing pattern for a given target site depending on protospacer length. In summary, CRISPR-BE components expressed without lethal effects on cell survival in the IRI-CCE allow an analysis of various BE tools, including cloned biopart modules and sgRNAs.
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